放射治疗是目前食管癌主要的、有效的、安全的治疗手段，是食管癌综合治疗的重要手段之一。 然而多项临床研究表明局部控制失败仍然是治疗失败的首要原因。因此，提高食管癌细胞放射敏 感性是治疗的关键。放射增敏剂可有效提高肿瘤细胞的放射敏感性，一直是放射肿瘤治疗学中的 一个研究热点。使用放射增敏剂是改善相当一部分患者不能够耐受同期放化疗的不良反应这一现 状，提高放疗效果。本文从凋亡、乏氧、血管生成三个角度介绍食管癌放疗增敏的转化医学及临 床研究，力求为食管癌综合治疗提供新思路。针对不同靶点通过不同药物增加其敏感性是未来食 管癌个体化医疗的发展方向。
Radio-sensitivity and individualized radiation therapy in esophageal cancer
Radiation therapy is an effective, safe, and common method in treating esophageal cancer, and one of the major approaches in a multi-disciplinary team. However, failure of local control is the primary cause of treatment failure. Therefore, increasing radio-sensitivity is the key point. Radio-sensitizer can improve radio-sensitivity of tumor cells effectively and attract attention in radiation oncology research. With the companion of proper radio-sensitizer, patients can not only show the more excellent sensitivity to chemo-radiotherapy but also tolerate side effects in the traditional dose. This manuscript focuses on translational and clinical research of esophageal cancer, in the perspective of hypoxia, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, and strives to provide new ideas for comprehensive treatment of esophageal cancer. It is direction of future to develop new drugs targeting novel molecules in cancer cells, which is also important in individualized medicine.